After a battling first-half performance constricted the promotion chasers, the Glovers took the lead on 62 minutes.
Ben Whitfield’s inch-perfect corner was slammed home by Nathan Smith, before the hosts’ lead was doubled just two minutes later.
Matty Dolan’s dead-ball delivery this time picked out Alex Lacey at the near-post who made no mistake from close range.
With Town in delirium, Plymouth threatened to spoil the party when Jakub Sokolik headed home Jake Jervis’ delivery with a little over 10 minutes remaining, but Yeovil held firm for an impressive victory.
Darren Way made two changes to the side that lost out to Doncaster last weekend, re-shuffling to the more familiar 4-3-3 formation.
Ryan Dickson, recovered from concussion, replaced the rested Darren Ward whilst Ben Whitfield – man of the match on Saturday – took Omar Sowunmi’s starting spot.
Taking on one of the division’s top two teams for a second match running, the Glovers started in assured fashion, with Whitfield and Tom Eaves particularly lively up front.
With driving rain falling, the hosts continued to enjoy the better of the play in the opening 20 minutes.
Whilst guilt-edged chances were lacking, Argyle’s Sonny Bradley had to be perfectly placed to turn away Francois Zoko’s driven cross, with Eaves and Whitfield lurking in the middle.
Despite feeding off of scraps for large periods, it was Derek Adams’ side who recorded the first attempt on target.
Gary Sawyer’s cross fell invitingly onto Craig Tanner’s head, but the Reading loanee could only pick out Artur Krysiak with a tame header.
Whilst the striker’s effort was comfortable for Krysiak, the Polish stopper was just a bystander moments later as Tanner’s rasping effort flew inches wide courtesy of a slight deflection, as Plymouth began to find their feet.
Buoyed by their opportunities, Argyle cranked up the pressure with a series of corners as the game ticked towards the break which produced some heroic Yeovil defending.
The trio of Alex Lacey, Liam Shephard and Matt Butcher conspired to somehow keep the ball out with it trickling across the six-yard box, before Dickson produced a stunning block from another Plymouth corner to stop Ryan Donaldson’s venomous strike.
Whilst the rain storm persisted at Huish Park the Glovers weathered the Argyle storm to head into the break goalless, with neither ‘keeper truly tested.
Fresh after the restart it was Yeovil who once again started the brighter.
Eaves proved to be too strong for Jakub Sokolik, leaving the former Yeovil man on the floor as he drove a low effort into the arms of Luke McCormick from inside the box.
With the game stuck at stalemate the league’s high-flyers brought on the dangerous pairing of Jake Jervis and Jordan Slew before the hour mark, as Argyle looked to find a way to break a resolute Yeovil.
Despite Adams’ throw of the dice it was Town who broke the deadlock just past the hourmark, when Whitfield’s dangerous corner was smashed into the back of the net by Nathan Smith from close range.
With the home crowd still celebrating, they were sent into delirium from another set-piece just two minutes later.
After Whitfield’s tenacity earned a free-kick close to the corner flag, Matty Dolan’s driven cross was neatly turned into the net by Alex Lacey to make it 2-0.
With the visitors rocking the game could have been put beyond doubt when a defensive mix-up between Bradley and Sokolik saw Whitfield through on goal, but McCormick was quick from his line to save well with his legs.
With time slipping away Plymouth threw caution to the wind and pinned themselves in Yeovil’s half, in an attempt to salvage something.
Looking dangerous on the fringes the visitors won a free-kick wide on the left when Whitfield felled Graham Carey, and the Devon outfit took full advantage.
Jervis’ delivery was whipped into the near post and was glanced into the net by Sokolik, although the final touch could easily have come off of a Yeovil man.
Desperate to avoid a slip-up in their automatic promotion push Argyle threw everything at Way’s Green and Whites, but they couldn’t trouble Krysiak further as Town held on for a thoroughly deserved three points.
Yeovil Town: Krysiak; Shephard, Lacey, Smith, Dickson; Dawson, Butcher, Dolan; Whitfield (Harrison 90’), Eaves (Sowunmi 86’), Zoko (Goodship 79’).
Bookings: Eaves 83’, Krysiak 90’, Dawson 90’.
Subs not used: Maddison, Mugabi, James, Bassett.
Plymouth Argyle: McCormack; Threlkeld, Songo’o, Bradley, Sokolik, Sawyer; Donaldson (Slew 56’), Carey, Fox (Sarcevic 68’); Blissett (Jervis 56’), Tanner.
Bookings: Fox 24’, Songo’o 87’.
Subs not used: Bulvitis, Rooney, Dorel.